Car tyre fragments could damage our health, experts say

tyre particles
Tyres give off particles of different sizes. Even the smoke contains tiny fragments of plastic (Picture iStock/Toa55)

We’re frequently told that cars are bad for the planet. That’s why we’re being pushed towards driving electric cars. But exhaust emissions aren’t the only nasties to come from our cars. Every time we drive, tiny bits of rubber fly off our tyres and into the atmosphere. In some cases, these particles are so small they’re considered to be microplastics. Read on to see if they really pose a threat.

How do tyres release fragments?

When a tyre runs along a road it generates friction. By rubbing against the road surface, both the tyre and road surface wear – that’s why periodically you have to replace your tyres. As part of the wearing process, tiny fragments of tyre are released. These are so small they’re called particles, or in some cases microparticles.

How big are the particles?

The next time you look in the gutter, you’ll see grit. Much of this is man made and consists of pieces of worn road, tyre fragments, brake dust plus exhaust and other environmental emissions. The tyre and road particle element of this grit varies in size from between 0.01mm to 0.0025mm. That’s stretching from tiny to microscopic. The larger pieces are the sort of stuff that ends up on the end of a street sweeper’s broom. The smaller particles can become airborne and in some cases are small enough for us to inhale.

What are tyre particles made of?

Sir David Attenborough among others has worked hard to bring the effect of microplastics to our attention. But did you know that tyre particles are considered to be microplastics? This is because tyres are no longer made purely from rubber. They contain between 20 and 40 ingredients and some of these are polymers, which are considered to be plastic.

How serious is the problem?

tyre particles
OECD suggests tyre particles at the side of major roads could be bad for our health (Picture iStock/PRImageFactory)

This is where the experts can’t seem to agree. The Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) claims that a road used by 25,000 vehicles a day will see up to 9kg of tyre dust per kilometre emitted. However, scientific tests conducted by the tyre industry suggest it’s a fraction of this. Tyre makers estimates 1kg of tyre particle emissions per person per year in Europe.

How bad for us are these particles?

Again, the experts disagree. The OECD seems to think they’re very bad. Shayne MacLachlan of the OECD Environment Directorate wrote: “A lot of non-exhaust pollution from tyres and brakes winds up in rivers, streams and lakes. They produce particulate matter which is more harmful for humans than gas pollutants like ozone and nitrogen dioxide.”

However, the tyre industry counters with research that it claims shows tyre dust isn’t nearly as harmful as some might think. In tests on rats it found a no-observable-adverse-effect level. More tests concluded that tyre wear particles are low risk to aquatic eco systems. And research into tyre particles in the Seine river in France found that because particles are heavier than water, they sink and therefore don’t make it into the sea. And it claims that nearly two thirds of tyre particles (61 per cent) end up coming to rest beside roads.

What does this mean for drivers?

In the short term there’s little we can do, other than be more relaxed drivers. Tyre particle expert Susanne Buchholz from tyre maker Continental says: “The biggest part in the number of particles released is played by driver behaviour.” In other words, the slower you drive, the fewer particles your tyres will release and the more miles you’ll get out of your rubber.

In the long term, we might be looking at tyre wear featuring on the labels you see when you buy tyres. That would enable consumers to choose a tyre based on how many particles it might release.

This is a problem that won’t go away

Currently, experts might disagree on how bad for us and the environment tyre particles really are. However, as take-up of electric cars increases and exhaust emissions falls, the focus will fall on other emissions from cars. Sadly, tyre particles are an unavoidable by-product of driving a car.

17 comments on “Car tyre fragments could damage our health, experts say

  1. dave 02/07/2019 4:32 PM

    I think all this is going a bit far what about all the dust particles in the air are these not dangerous too.This and climate change are all white wash all this is about is the governments and the power companies after more money.the big word is “greed”.

    • John Dover 04/09/2019 8:32 PM

      Pollution and climate change are real, serious issues.

  2. Eric Hayman 02/07/2019 7:41 PM

    “The next time you look in the gutter, you’ll see grit. This is actually all man made and consists of pieces of worn road, tyre fragments, brake dust plus exhaust and other environmental emissions. ”

    Try again. What about the debris washed from gardens and fields into the gutters? And from the roadside grass and trees? Stop trying to make me feel guilty. Would you rather have horse dung?

    • John. Dovet 04/09/2019 8:29 PM

      At least horse dung is natural and bio degradable. Plastic tyre particles are not. We should all be taking synthetic pollution more seriously and doing whatever is necessary to reduce it.

    • Iris Gordijn 09/09/2019 1:35 PM

      Roadside grass and trees produce emissions that are very good for our health, and horse poo? I’d prefer that anytime!

  3. Jim Darby 04/07/2019 5:29 PM

    I love my cars and have the last 30 years. And I do my part to keep them up to the best condition I can. I do everything I can to keep them maintained and running very well with no fluid drips and good seals everywhere they are needed. I don’t drain my coolant, oil, or other car fluids on the ground as no one of the humankind should in this modern day and age. We a much smarter now and educated to not harm the earth in needless selfish ways. I respect my tires as I don’t “roast them” like I use to at every stop light, as it is a total waste of tire and money and an unneeded pollutant contributor in my city of Spokane, WA. They get “lit up” rarely but do. It is a culture thing but I don’t “drift my car tires” which is a completely useless sport and way to drive any car.

  4. Frank Nebs 03/09/2019 10:09 PM

    The government need to introduce a tax to solve this problem. Extra tax is the answer to anything, look at the london congestion charge, that was introduced to reduce congestion in london but the roads are busier than ever.

    • John 18/11/2023 12:57 AM

      Years ago I know but, I don’t understand this statement. They need to introduce more tax? And then you give an example of tax being introduced but it didn’t change a thing?
      But lets introduce more anyway? I am lost here. Unless you were having a laugh at the system. My humour was running low this day.

  5. William Leicester 04/09/2019 10:40 AM

    The only way to stop all these particles would be to invent a HOVER CAR device, but then it comes down to the type of fuel petrol no, nuclear NO chance, hydrogen maybe, unless there is something better it would have to be solar power which would mean that the entire car would have to be made some form or glass with the exception of fiberglass from OR PLASTIC.
    So if there is some one out there that can invent one then get your finger out and MAKE ONE.

  6. roger 04/09/2019 10:46 AM

    So the OECD state 9kg and the tyre companies state 1 kg. This sounds like the sort of report the Tobacco Companies were giving out when they said smoking was safe and the medical experts were saying it was dangerous.

  7. lolman 05/09/2019 9:10 PM

    why not go and pick on the millions of aircraft raining polution down on us every day add in military aviation to make a case. one boeing 747 flight from manchester to hong kong would use enough fuel to run a car for 40 years. But i have seen the documentary on dubai airport where each runway has to be cleaned of tyre debris regularly

  8. neal lloyd 05/09/2019 9:49 PM

    Is there a bacteria that actually eats or brake down the rubber?

    • John 18/11/2023 12:59 AM

      Yes. But only a small percentage of it.

  9. Philip 09/09/2019 5:05 PM

    What about making roads from waste plastic? Will this double the problem?

  10. Pat D 15/09/2019 12:03 PM

    For the environment. it is best to wear tyres to the absolute maximum before changing them.
    Of course the tyre industry and its so called “not for Profit” wing “Tyre safe” want and lobby for changing them unnecessary for the slightest reason (under the guise of “safety first”) plus condemn the use and sale of perfectly good used tyres for the same reason … Profit !

    This also means belching out more fumes manufacturing more than necessary as a result.

    So if we made proper use of what we have this pollution would be greatly reduced.

  11. Keith Powell 01/06/2021 9:12 AM

    In the end it will thicken the wallet of some fat greedy councillors, and reduce the traffic flows on the roads in which they own property.

  12. John 18/11/2023 1:08 AM

    Oddly enough, not single website that I have researched so far (and there were a lot including from major science organisations, governments and environmental institutions) talk about the road surface and what is made from and how it is made.
    I.e. A bitumen road surface (Low noise, smooth, much lower risk of severe injury if falling from a skateboard or bike etc VS stone chipped roads (Extremely aggressive to tyre wear, very noisy and extremely dangerous to fall on. Think Cheese greater)
    In New Zealand (The country that THINKS it is so important and so green lays sharp stone chip road surfaces EVERYWHERE.
    Can you imagine the amount of rubber being sheared away from tyres due to its extremely aggressive friction? Yet no one even blinks at road surfaces.
    Go figure. The Idiots are just caught up in whos first to come up with a winning profitable formula.

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